12. What do all the terms and abbreviations mean?
1. Umbrella Terms
AN: Additional Needs: The main term used within the school for needs presented by students that cannot be met by universal / Wave 1 approaches.
SEN: Special Educational Needs: A sub-section of Additional Needs referring primarily to the needs presented by students who have educational needs and are on the school’s SEN Support Register. Often abbreviated as SEN or ‘Special Needs’.
2. Identifiable Types of Difficulties, Conditions and Disability
SpLD: Specific Learning Difficulties: An umbrella term covering a wide range of identifiable difficulties, usually inherent, that an individual may present with. When these difficulties are clustered together, often more definitive sub-sets are used such as ‘dyslexia’, ‘dyscalculia’, ‘ADHD’ etc.
ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A specific learning difficulty typically presenting as exceptionally low concentration span, poor working memory, limited organisational skills with extreme impulsivity.
ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder: A specific learning difficulty typically presenting as exceptionally low concentration span, poor working memory, daydreaming / procrastination and slower thinking through of concepts, questions etc.
AD: Attachment Disorder: A range of difficulties typically affecting mood, adherence to social norms and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary caregivers during early childhood (0-3 years). Also has causative link to incidences of abuse, neglect, sudden separation from / changes in caregivers during early childhood.
ASD: Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A psychological condition presenting itself in a variety of forms (Autism, Asperger Syndrome, Pervasive Development Disorder), typically including specific learning difficulties centred around limited empathy, fixated / literal thinking, limited ability to interpret language, limited ability to engage in a variety of social situations / experiences etc.
BESD: Behavioural, Emotional and Social: A range of difficulties typically presenting as exceptional limitations in an ability to recognise and manage emotions linked in with a persistent inability to engage constructively in a variety of social situations / experiences etc.
Dyslexia or Dyslexic Tendencies: A specific learning difficulty typically presenting itself in one or more of the main areas of literacy – namely reading and spelling. Students will have difficulties with working memory and often organisational skills. A commonly used indicator is where there is a clear discrepancy between literacy skills and intelligence / general ability – though students of all ability levels may have dyslexia.
Dyspraxia: A specific learning difficulty based around the brain’s transmission of signals that control gross and fine motor skills – typically affecting planning of movements and co-ordination. Can also impact on language development.
Dyscalculia: A specific learning difficulty typically presenting itself in one or more of the main areas of Math / numeracy – namely use of symbols, acquiring arithmetical skills particularly those requiring use of working memory, and spatial understanding. On the surface, these often relate to basic concepts such as: telling the time, calculating prices and handling change, and measuring and estimating things such as temperature and speed.
HI: Hearing Impairment: Difficulties based around fully or partially reduced functioning in one or both ear’s ability to detect and/or process sounds. Caused by a wide range of biological and environmental factors, loss of hearing typically arises in young people from a genetic / biological condition or injury to part/s of the ear.
MLD: Moderate Learning Difficulties: Definitions of Moderate Learning Difficulties vary. However, a common understanding is that there must be substantial difficulties (2+ years below standard progress) in two or more of the following areas: literacy, numeracy, speech and language, social skills, memory, concentration – typically in conjunction with an exceptionally low score on an individual test of intelligence and notable low self-esteem / independence in learning.
PI: Physical Impairment: Difficulties based around a full or partially reduced muscular-skeletal functioning in part/s of the body. Caused by a wide range of biological and environmental factors, this type of difficulty typically arises in young people from a genetic / biological condition, a medical condition or a significant injury.
SLCN: Speech, Language and Communication Needs: A range of specific learning difficulties related to all aspects of communication in children and young people. These can include difficulties with fluency, forming sounds and words, formulating sentences, understanding what others say, and using language for socially and learning.
VI: Visual Impairment: Difficulties based around fully or partially reduced functioning in one or both eye’s ability to detect and/or process images. Caused by a wide range of biological and environmental factors, loss of vision typically arises in young people from a genetic / biological condition or injury to part/s of the eye.
The following two areas are not classed as a learning difficulty, condition or disability but are a formally identifiable area of need.
EAL: English as an Additional Language: Referring to students who were born in Britain for whom English is not the first language as home and for students not born in Britain, having arrived in the country after the acquisition of their first language (typically 5 years old or over).
Med: Medical Needs: Refers specifically to students with a medical condition that is permanent / ongoing and is likely to interfere with attendance to school and participation in a full mainstream curriculum.
3. Core Practices and Processes
Access Arrangements: Additional support for students sitting exams / controlled assessments.
Additional Needs Plan (ANP) or Individual Educational Plan (IEP) or Individual Behaviour Plan (IBP): A document to plan and record actions being undertaken to meet the additional needs of a student.
Annual Review: A legally-binding yearly review of needs and support arrangements for a student with an Education, Health and Care Plan. Involves written reports and a meeting between all relevant parties.
Health Care Plan or Medical Needs Plan: A document holding information on a student’s medical needs with advice on responses where necessary.
In-class Support: Strategies and additional staffing put in place to ensure the inclusion and achievement of a student or group of students in the mainstream classroom.
Intervention: Small group or individual programmes of study for students with identified additional needs.
Personal Educational Plan (PEP): A document to plan and record actions being undertaken to ensure the well-being and progress of students registered as ‘Child in Care’ / ‘Looked-after Child’.
Request for an Education, Health and Care Plan: Triggers assessment of a student’s needs undertaken by the school, educational psychologist, Local Authority, health and social care services to determine whether an Education, Health and Care Plan is required.
SEN Support Register: A document holding information on all students identified as having additional needs requiring specific intervention in school.
Single Assessment or Early Help Assessment (EHA), previously CAF: An assessment process, through completion of an assessment form, used by the school when referring to external agencies and designed to be used across the childcare workforce throughout England. Originally introduced as part of the ‘Every Child Matters’ initiative.
Standardised Test: A test of intelligence or skill area measured against established norms / averages for that age group. A standardised test will typically lead to a ‘standardised score’, ‘age equivalent score’ and a ‘percentile rank’ which can inform psychological / diagnostic reports.
Statement of SEN or Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP): A legally-binding document outlining funding and provision to be implemented by the school and other agencies in support of a young person.
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